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03 November 2016

Support a Global Classrooms DC Delegate!

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With the help of over 70 volunteers from local universities and organizations, this past year Global Classrooms DC (GCDC) is seeing tangible benefits in our communities, particularly a rise in global consciousness among students in the DC Metro Area. The efforts by educators and students culminated in our Annual Spring Model UN Conference at the U.S. Department of State and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), where students had the opportunity to discuss complex global issues. Read more about the GCDC program in the 2015-2016 GCDC Annual Report.

Moving forward, we want to continue offering the next generation the skills needed to better navigate an increasingly complex and interdependent world. As a result, we are welcoming new staff and initiatives for the upcoming year.

Curriculum for 2016-2017

Students will discuss and learn about important international issues including access to primary education, rising sea levels (climate change), human rights of refugees, technology for sustainable city development, the situation in Somalia, and preventing violent extremism. Our annual Model UN conference at the U.S. Department of State will take place on May 2, 2017.

Luis F. Mendez

GCDC welcomes Luis F. Mendez, Una Chapman Cox Fellow, and U.S. Foreign Service Officer, to our team for the 2016 – 2017 school year. Luis recently served at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, and has overseas experience in Senegal, Morocco, and Ghana. During the school year, Luis will be discussing the importance of Model United Nations and serving as a mentor to selected schools, sharing his experience as a U.S. Foreign Service Officer, and professional mentoring for students interested in pursuing similar careers.

GCDC: Support-a-Delegate

Last year, 43% of our students attended Title 1 schools in Washington DC, coming from low-income families and qualifying for reduced-lunch programs. We understand that individuals and organizations are stretched for resources and that learning extends outside of the classroom. These opportunities, including Model UN Conferences, are provided through GCDC to public and public charter school students in the DC area for little to no cost

Through our new initiative, Support a Delegate, new and loyal donors of GCDC can continue supporting students, educators, and classrooms in the DC Metro Area. Donation levels start at $20, and each donation through the Support a Delegate program receives a unique acknowledgement, including handwritten letters from students and educators, social media recognition, and invitations to our Model UN Conferences and other program activities.

Support a Student

For only $75 you can cover the cost of a student’s delegate fee for our Annual Spring Model UN Conference at the U.S. Department of State on May 2, 2017. This conference gives students the opportunity to discuss current international issues as a UN delegate, interact with over 500 students from different schools in the US and abroad, and strengthen their speaking, writing, and conflict resolution skills through Model UN.

How can I donate?

Every donation helps and is incredibly appreciated. Your support provides students unique opportunities to gain knowledge from experienced practitioners, and attend programs designed to strengthen key skills and test their knowledge of international affairs. You can donate online through Razoo or send a check made out to the "United Nations Association of the National Capital Area" or "UNA-NCA" Memo: GCDC Support a Delegate.

How can I volunteer?

We are always looking for volunteers to serve as Model UN Mentors, Classroom speakers, or support us at our Model UN Conferences. For more information please contact GCDC at  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or 202.223.6092

We look forward to the upcoming year, and all of the new initiatives happening at GCDC.



02 November 2016

Fall 2016 Young Professionals’ Career Dinner Series

On Saturday, October 22, 2016, UNA-NCA invited students and young professionals to participate in its semi-annual Young Professional Career Dinner series.

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This signature event is held every spring and fall and is an opportunity for young people to discuss global career paths and network with experienced professionals in their fields of interest. The Fall 2016 Dinner Series kicked off with a networking reception at the United Nations Foundation, where around 80 participants and speakers had the chance to meet and swap business cards. Paula Boland, Executive Director of UNA-NCA and Jessica Mueller, UNA-NCA’s Vice President of Young Professionals welcomed guests to the evening’s event, before turning over the stage to our keynote speaker, Ty Cobb, who is the Founder Director of HRC Global at the Human Rights Campaign.

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Ty Cobb came to Washington D.C. as a kid from Texas with nothing guaranteed. He found himself as an intern at UNA. While in DC, he took jobs he didn’t want, did jobs that he didn’t want, and made himself available whenever possible. He joined the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) after serving as counsel to Sen. Edward M. Kennedy on the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee of the U.S. Senate, where he worked toward passage of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act in 2009. Ty then served as senior legislative counsel at HRC. In this role, he focused on federal advocacy related to a portfolio of issues including the repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" and passage of a LGBTQ-inclusive Violence Against Women Act. 
 

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This season’s dinners focused on Careers in International Law, Careers in International Service, Careers in International Education, Careers in Public Health, Careers in International Journalism and Communications, Humanitarian Careers and Women in Entrepreneurship and Leadership. Several of these dinners were hosted in private homes around the DC Metro Area – including one in Maryland and one in Northern Virginia – while others were held at the United Nations Foundation. Professional speakers in each of these topics offered career advice and guidance, and shared personal stories of experience in their particular fields. Attendees were encouraged to ask specific or general questions about the field, and engage in conversation in a uniquely intimate and comfortable setting.


Did you join us on Saturday night? See if you can spot and tag yourself in our photo album!

Thank you to the United Nations Foundation for the use of its facilities, UNA-USA staff for their logistical support, our distinguished speakers for their expertise, the evening’s hosts and sponsors, including Windows Catering, and UNA-NCA’s Young Professionals Committee and volunteers.

The Young Professionals Career Dinners are hosted semi-annually: in the spring and fall of each year. We hope you’ll join us for the Spring 2017 edition!



02 November 2016

Statement from UNA-NCA President on the Progress of the Climate Change Agreement

Statement from the UNA-NCA President

On November 4th, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change will enter into force. The formal ratification threshold of at least 55 Member States and at least 55% of total greenhouse gas emissions has been exceeded in an extraordinarily short period of time. 

Maintaining the momentum is critical. Implementation of the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, for example, should fully take into account both slowing the progression of, and adapting to the effects of, Climate Change. Take urgent action!

According to the Chinese proverb, a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. Lest the euphoria surrounding the achievement of COP 21 in Paris begins to fade, it is noteworthy that several very significant steps have been taken on the journey to meet the challenging target of keeping the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels-- and the more aspirational goal of under 1.5 degrees Celsius:
  • Once in force, under the provisions of the Climate Agreement, withdrawal of a State is technically a four-year process—a factor that has been an issue in the US election.
  • On November 7-18th, the next round of climate talks (COP22 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) takes place in Marrakesh, Morocco; preliminary talks are already underway this week. Among the issues to be addressed: implementation of the Paris Agreement, financing technology transfers and adaptation to climate change, loss and damage resulting from climate change, updating science, gender issues, capacity building, and assisting the least developed countries and island states.
  • On October 14th, 170 States in Kigali, Rwanda, agreed to an amendment to the 1989 Montreal Protocol that would significantly reduce the greenhouse gas, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), used in refrigeration under three separate timetables, thus preventing a rise in temperature of .5 degrees Celsius (.9 Fahrenheit) by 2100. Secretary of State John Kerry called this: “The single most important step we can take at this time.”
  • On October 7th, at its 39th Triennial Assembly, the 191-member International Civil Aviation Organization agreed to establish a Global Market Based Measure to offset aircraft CO emissions, which in addition to setting a CO2 standard for new aircraft, the development of biofuels and more efficient navigation systems will enable the industry to achieve its carbon neutral objective. Aircraft emissions account for between 2 and 3% of total greenhouse gas emissions.
  • On October 25th, the International Maritime Organization discussed a plan to limit CO2 emissions from international shipping, thus becoming the third sector not covered by COP21 to make progress on achieving the targets of the Climate Agreement.
  • On October 30, National Geographic launched the documentary "Before the Flood,” where Oscar winning actor Leonardo DiCaprio explores the topic of climate change, and discovers what must be done today to prevent catastrophic disruption of life on our planet. You can watch the video here.

On November 4th, the United Nations Environment Program released a report stating that even with the Paris Agreement, the world will still need to further cut 25% from predicted 2030 emissions. You can read the report here.
Ambassador Donald T. Bliss (ret.)
President
United Nations Association of the National Capital Area



27 October 2016

Looking at the Legacy of Ban Ki-moon and the Challenges Facing the Next Secretary-General

 

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On October 18th, 2016, the United Nations Association of the National Capital Area (UNA-NCA) celebrated the 71st anniversary of the United Nations and UN Day with a program that set forth the accomplishments of Ban Ki-moon as the outgoing Secretary-General and discussed the challenges and opportunities of António Guterres, the newly appointed Secretary General and former High Commissioner for Refugees and Prime Minister of Portugal. The program was officiated by UNA-NCA president, Ambassador Donald T. Bliss (ret.), with keynote remarks from the Honorable Robert C. Orr and an engaging conversation with Dr. Esther Brimmer and Mr. Joshua Black. The program was supported by a large number of distinguished leaders and former ambassadors as part of our UN Day Host Committee. The event was sponsored and hosted by the National Education Association.

2Following a lively reception, UNA-NCA Board member Jill Christianson of the National Education Association, opened the program recalling the Mohawks’ belief in the seven generations; that we cannot move forward without acknowledging where we have been.

During his welcome remarks, Ambassador Bliss emphasized that “During this time of transition in the leadership of both the United Nations and the United States, the work of UNA-NCA has never been more critical. As it was in 1945, US leadership is essential to an effective and efficient United Nations, and that requires strong public and policymaker support for the UN’s mission.”

The Honorable Robert C. Orr, Dean of the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, served as under UN Secretary-General for Ban Ki-moon as special adviser for climate change, and also as part of the transition team from previous Secretary-General Kofi Annan. In Dean Orr’s eyes, we can’t underestimate the role leadership plays in shaping world events.

"Legacy matters. Leadership matters." The Honorable Dean Robert Orr on the legacy of Ban Ki-moon.
 
4Dean Orr summed up the legacy of Ban Ki-moon’s tenure as Secretary-General of the UN with two key contributions: the Paris Agreement on climate change and the framework on the Sustainable Development Goals. Upon taking office, Ban Ki-moon had asked Dean Orr if there was any issue on which the Secretary-General could move. Dean Orr responded that climate change was the number one issue that needed the attention and focus of the office. Despite not knowing much about climate change coming into office, Ban Ki-moon studied the subject relentlessly upon becoming Secretary-General. In his tenure, he strongly advocated for a global solution to climate change and was a catalyst for global agreements. “The seeds of Paris were sowed in Copenhagen.” Dean Orr said that without Ban Ki-moon and the leadership of the Obama Administration, there would be no climate agreement.
Ban Ki-moon also established a global transparent process to follow up 0n the Millennium Development Goals, inviting the participation the world’s citizens, civil society and the private sector in shaping the 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs), which were unanimously adopted by the member states in the General Assembly in September of last year. The aspirational goals of the SDGs are much more ambitious than the MDGs. Both Ban Ki-moon and Dean Orr stressed that these goals must be achieved through a connected multi-stakeholder approach. Under Ban Ki-moon, the space for academia, business, and finance in “the room” has increased dramatically.

Additional contributions under Ban Ki-moon’s tenure include strengthening intergovernmental space for Human Rights and bringing Asia in from the cold. Ban revitalized Human Rights as a focus of the United Nations, including the establishments of the Human Rights Council and promoting the human rights and quality of LGBTQ individuals worldwide. A strong advocate for gender equality, he established UN Women to bring focus to the UN’s work in this area. Being Korean, Ban Ki-moon can be credited with bringing Asia into the largely Trans-Atlantic UN and bringing the UN to Asia.
 
When it comes to peace building and counterterrorism, we are much better off than we were a decade ago, but there is always more work to do. Dean Orr commented that “.500 is a great average in baseball, but horrible in war and peace.”
 
Looking forward, António Guterres faces the largest refugee crisis since WWII but he is highly qualified for the job as former head of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR). Guterres will bring new energy to the problems in Syria and Middle East. As the world changes quickly, the UN must change accordingly. Internal operations and systems need to be strengthened. Geopolitics are changing. We need to bring all the actors into the fold; strengthening the UN’s commitment to security and investment. Guterres will need a highly innovative, multi-stakeholder approach to address such extreme threats to international peace and security.
 
5Dr. Brimmer, former Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs, acknowledged several other concerns for Guterres as he takes office in January: member states shirking their duties; power competition between member states; and anti-globalization. She highlighted the importance of the US role in UN challenges and opportunities. “They [the Security Council] actually selected a former head of government,” further encouraging the rise of stakeholders. Dr. Brimmer also touched on the importance of evolution of the UN and the need of multilateral reform moving forward.
 
Mr. Joshua Black’s connections to the UN and the UNA go back 17 years when he was an intern for the UN Association. His interests and work have brought him full circle. He is now the Director of Multilateral Affairs at the White House on the staff of the National Security Council.
 
Black described the new transparent process of selecting the Secretary General and the way the White House assessed the experience and qualifications of the 13 applicants. While there were excellent women candidates, he felt that the Security Council consistently came together on the most qualified person for the job with substantial UN experience and the first former head of state to assume the post. He confirmed that there was not a backroom deal and that it was refreshing to see the US, Russia and the other Security Council members come together so quickly in consensus.
In the context of other US-Russia relationships, Black expressed concern that the rules of international conflict and engagement are being abused. Among the challenges for the next Secretary General, he stated that Guterres must address these issues of morality (i.e. attacking schools and hospitals, chemical/biological warfare, etc.).
 
Mr. Black articulated his hopes that the next administration will make us excited about the United Nations again and the ideas and the values of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A thoroughly engaged audience asked a number of important questions, including efforts we can take to encourage a more cooperative, collaborative Security Council:

-How do we encourage a more cooperative, collaborative Security Council?

-In the face of an unprecedented call for a female Secretary-General, what will Guterres do for
gender equality?
 
In response to a question concerning Guterres’ efforts for gender equality in the face of an unprecedented call for a female Secretary-General, Dean Orr asserted that Guterres will be an important champion for women in the UN, but also recognized the amount of work that remains. “I hope people say: ‘Wow!’ He gets the issue on women.”
 
We must look for continued opportunities for collaboration and bring all parties together on common ground. The UN belongs to everyone.



26 October 2016

Kingdom of Norway Awarded for UN Advocacy for LGBTQ Rights


On October 21st at Arlington Unitarian Universalist Church, the United Nations Office of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UNO) bestowed its annual award on the Kingdom of Norway for its longstanding support of United Nations advocacy for LBGTQ rights. UNO has long worked with the United Nations to advance human rights, including the rights of  LGBTQ community, and Norway has long supported UN human rights advocacy and funded the United Nations staff working on this issue. UNO Director, Bruce Knotts recounted UNO’s sometimes lonely advocacy over the years.  The award was accepted by Norway’s Ambassador to the United States, Kare R. Aas, who spoke eloquently about Norway’s commitment to human rights. UNA-NCA was represented by its president, Ambassador Don Bliss (ret.)



26 October 2016

UN Day Celebration at the Residence of the Colombian Ambassador


c1On October 20th, UNA-NCA celebrated UN Day again at the beautiful residence of the Ambassador from Colombia near 
DuPont Circle. In partnership with the Embassy Series and the Colombian Embassy, UNA-NCA dedicated the concert program to the United Nations 71st Anniversary. Ambassador Juan Carlos Pinzon spoke about Colombia’s longstanding support of the United Nations, as an original signer of the UN Charter. He expressed appreciation for the UN’s support of the peace agreement signed  between the government and the FARC, despite the recent public referendum which rejected the agreement by a half percent. The peace process continues, however.

Jerome Barry, Director and Founder of the Embassy Series, then introduced UNA-NCA’s president, Ambassador Don Bliss (ret.), who congratulated Colombia’s president, Juan Manual Santos,  for his receipt of the Nobel Peace Prize, affirming that world  peace is the primary mission of the United Nations. Ambassador Bliss then pointed out that the previous Tuesday the UN Security Council had directed the new UN Mission for Colombia, as requested by the Colombian president,  to assist in maintaining the continuation of the ceasefire, and that the Security Council members had called for all the parties to continue the momentum to see the peace process through to completion.
 
c3Bliss then described the work of UN peacekeepers globally and the work of the United Nations in providing humanitarian
assistance to 70 million refugees and displaced persons and others in need due to manmade and natural catastrophes, in advancing economic development through the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, unanimously approved by the General Assembly, and in advocating for human rights, including the rights of women and the LBGT community. Recognizing that with the appointment of a new Secretary general and the election of a new US president and Congress, this is a critical time of transition in US-UN relationships, Bliss welcomed support for UNA-NCA’s programs to increase public awareness of the importance of US  leadership and that of other strong democracies like Colombia in ensuring the effectiveness of the United Nations in future decades.

The Ambassadors’ remarks were followed by a splendid concert by Colombian artists, guitarist Nilko Andres Guarin, Guitarist,  and Melanie Genin, Harpist, who played a diverse repertoire that included several Colombian classical composers and traditional bambuco dance music. As demonstrated by the Embassy Series diversified programs, music is indeed the international language.

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20 October 2016

Amb. Don Bliss (ret) review: Strengthening the United Nations' Peace and Security Mandate

Here is an advance copy of an article by our President, Amb. Don Bliss (ret.) which will appear in the November issue of The Ambassador's Review, a publication of the Council of American Ambassadors, of which Don is a member of the Board of Directors. This article is about strengthening the UN’s peace and security mandate and represents his views and not the official position of UNA-NCA. Please feel free to share it with your colleagues while referencing.

Read the article here. 



12 October 2016

Laurence Peters Writes Review for "UN Association-USA: A Little Known History of Advocacy and Action"

UN Association-USA: A Little Known History of Advocacy and Action, by James Wurst
Lynne Rienner Publishers Inc. 2016

By Laurence Peters, UNA-NCA Fellows Program Director

UN Association-USA: A Little Known History of Advocacy and Action should be essential reading for anyone who wants to go beyond our common and superficial accounts of the United Nations. It becomes apparent from Wurst's detailed and scholarly narrative, the World War II leaders who founded the UN could not have done so, and kept it going, without the support of a broad swathe of public opinion that supported their aims and objectives in forming the world body in the ashes of World War II. For them, it was clear that America's failure to support the League of Nations together with its isolationist foreign policy was directly responsible for the resultant horror and suffering that occurred between 1939 and 1945. They also knew that if the new organization was to work and achieve its goals that it could not be seen by the public as a way to cement a pax americana but had to be truly constituted as a world body. This meant that the public had to be made aware of a broader vision for the body requiring the mounting of an unprecedented political and educational campaign to support the UN as a means to end the scourge of war and to prevent a cataclysmic confrontation between the two superpowers of the time, the US and the USSR. Enter the American Association for the UN (AAUN), the predecessor organization to the UNA-USA. What Wurst does remarkably well is to show how UNA-USA has been a vital element in keeping US public opinion on the side of the new body, as the organization was forming, after the body started to lose some of its luster in the 1960s, and beyond as it began to grapple with the realities of the cold war and beyond.

The book reminds us that the UN's existence and continuing relevance depend to a remarkable extent on the support of American public opinion. For several reasons, the US remains the world's indispensable power both from an economic and military perspective and its membership on the P-5 means that it can strongly influence the UN Security Council as we have seen in the case of Iraq to see issues from its perspective in a way that no other nation can. A third reason is that the UN is housed in New York City symbolizing the fact that the US was the power that pushed for its creation from the beginning as it had done with respect to the League of Nations before the US Senate felt otherwise and rejected ratifying its Charter to the world's dismay and great cost. No historical understanding of the UN is thus complete without a reference to the way UNA-USA, through its affiliate chapters, has attempted to ensure that US public opinion both understands the need for the UN and supports its more than $3 billion contribution to the organization. To uncover that history requires the skills of both a journalist and a historian as much of the source material lies in what historians like to call fugitive documents--pamphlets, minutes of meetings, obscure archival material, and interviews with original founding members such as 94 year old Dorothy Robbins-Mowry who started working with the League of Nations Association (LNA) on education programs in 1942 and later worked on the first Model UN program.

The book is divided into two sections – The first chapters follow the decade by decade growth of UNA detailing the work of various officers and committees, and the second part is a reflective look at some major themes such as the involvement of the private sector, UNA's involvement in human rights, and UNA's education programs. The two approaches complement each other nicely but there is some overlap. Each chapter is scholarly but the early narrative-based chapters are on the whole far more readable and accessible to a non-scholarly audience than the later ones that sometimes get too mired in the source material to be of much benefit to the non-specialist. There are also some gaps in coverage, one would, for example, like more information on the significant contribution of UNA-USA to the development and establishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the further contribution the association made to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The real value of the book is to provide us with a very detailed portrait of how vital UNA-USA has been to the US, maintaining its involvement in an organization that throughout much of its short history had to navigate its way through some serious ideological headwinds that often threatened US support. It's clear that UNA-USA has been fortunate in its choice of leadership. From the very early days the organization has been blessed to have some remarkable men and women at its helm and many chapters of the book highlight in some detail their various skill sets and accomplishments. Chapter one for example, allows us to glimpse the greatness of two of the organization's' founding members, Clark Eichelberger a former League of Nations Association executive, and James Shotwell a US delegate to the 1919 Paris Peace conference and the author of the charter of the International Labour Organization (ILO). We learn how these two different personalities worked together to achieve their objectives to found a world body that could effectively succeed the League of Nations and cajole President Roosevelt as well as those within his inner circle concerning the idea's viability. The narrative is able to reveal, by detailing the work of UNA-USA's forerunner organization, the League of Nations Association (LNA), what is often not appreciated that the work of expanding American's basically isolationist view of the world predates the UN.

The two men most closely identified as being there at the creation, Eichelberger and Shotwell were closely tied in to the foreign policy establishment, and to most critically FDR whom Eichelberger met eight times between 1936 and 1945 seeking to engage him on the issue of creating an international organization. As a measure of his success, the new president after Roosevelt's death filled his first cabinet with Wilsonians--Cordell Hunt as Secretary of State and Undersecretary Sumner Welles among others. From the start, Eichelberger and Shotwell were painfully aware of the reasons why the League of Nations failed and were eager to make sure that any new organization avoided the same mistakes. At the front and center of their minds was the need to build support for a broader and more international American outlook. During the 1930s and 40s, they were active in helping to create a range of organizations such as the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) and worked to defeat the neutrality acts. Both Eichelberger and Shotwell knew that in order to stay viable they needed to ensure any movement behind an alternative to the League needed to be both nonpartisan, and grassroots based.

What also comes through this history is how important human rights were to the rank and file of the American Association for the UN. If there was one unifying emotion that united people across the globe it was the revulsion to the genocidal efforts of the Axis powers to wipe out entire non-Aryan peoples and to commit devilish atrocities to achieve their ends. This meant that governments could not be trusted to preserve these rights and that they had to be enshrined in the UN Charter and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It meant too that in the first years of the organization's existence that decolonization had to be high on the agenda. "Freedom," Eichelberger memorably wrote, "cannot be rationed." It became startlingly clear to the big powers at the 1945 San Francisco meeting that self-government of their former colonies was now an inevitable part of the global community they had agreed to become part of, and they had again in Eichelberger's words signed onto the "eventual doom of the colonial system" by signing onto the Charter. None of this of course was a foregone conclusion, and Wurst properly describes the specific UN-related impact of figures such as William E B. Dubois, head of the NAACP, in uniting global public opinion against former colonial powers being licensed to continue their old exploitative systems in the post war period.

Despite the fact that by September 1947, 85 percent of people viewed the UN favorably (according to Gallup polling in 1947), many feared that as the cold war set in the fledgling organization would lose support. Much of the work of the AAUN was to continue to help the US resist the calls of isolationism and to help frame an acceptable view of internationalism that could not be branded as too liberal or partisan for the times. Wurst shows us how this challenge was met by discussing the way a roster of celebrities were employed to make sure that Americans retained their positive image of the UN. Douglas Fairbanks Jr, Myrna Loy, and the incomparable Danny Kaye with respect to UNICEF were all employed to make sure that people regarded the UN in a favorable light. Even Oscar Hammerstein II, the composer of musicals that celebrated international understanding such as The King and I and South Pacific, was able to give a rousing defense of the UN to Edward R Murrow. The AAUN never got branded as "Red" and in fact went on the offensive calling for the UN Charter to be used as legal authority to decide two important Supreme Court racial discrimination cases. In both cases the Supreme Court upheld the AAUN view and ruled that restrictive covenants that barred African Americans from owning their own homes in certain areas were indeed unconstitutional.

We learn more fascinating episodes in the life of the UNA and its predecessor organization the AAUN in a subsequent chapter contributed by Dulcie Leimbach, a fellow of the Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY). Leimbach writes that when Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the US mission in 1952 she almost immediately showed up for volunteer work at AAUN's New York headquarters causing Clark Eichelberger, the organization's executive director, to "almost fall off his chair." She worked for nearly 10 years as a volunteer helping Eichelberger double the number of chapters--her vision was to "bring to the people of the United States a fundamental knowledge on all UN activities." As well as raising funds for the organization, speaking, lobbying the Congress, and recruiting powerful names to the AAUN board, she continued to write her My Day column! It was an incredible workload driven by her passionate desire to make the UN not just her husband's great legacy, which it was, but her own as well. Her aim was always a bipartisan effort to "get more truthful information about the United Nations into the hands of the people and to get what help we can from the people's organizations." Leimbach helps us see in this chapter how Roosevelt saw the AAUN in expansive terms as a "mass membership organization" one that should include labor unions as well as local civil society.

The Eleanor Roosevelt period from 1953-1962 witnesses the growth of the citizen organization as it wove itself deeply into the country's political fibers managing to build to a membership organization of more than 42,000 members. The organization was a stable part of the political firmament and ready to deal with the challenges posed by the 1970s which increasingly involved the US not willing to pay its dues to the UN, due in part to the General Assembly vote equating Zionism and Racism. The UNA opposed the resolution but the anti-UN sentiment that it spawned made the effort a highly challenging effort for everyone involved. Enter Ambassador Elliot Richardson, who held the chairmanship of the UNA-USA Board. Equipped with impeccable brahim and Republican foreign policy credentials, he helped fend off some of the worst of the right wing attacks and helped preserve most of the US contribution to UN funding. Among the innovations following the standoffs in funding in the 1980s and 90s was the "Day on the Hill." It was the brainchild of John C Whitehead, a former Reagan appointed deputy secretary of state, and the director of the UNA office in Washington, Steven Dimoff. It worked brilliantly for both sides, allowing motivated UNA members from far and wide to lobby their Members of Congress and allowing their representatives in turn to grasp the passions that the UN stirred in their constituents. The next major event in UNA-USA history was the gift for UN causes made by Ted Turner who was moved to provide one billion dollars the amount that the US was in arrears for its share of UN contribution as a result of Senator Jesse Helms refusal to approve UN funding. Wurst tells the story of how, because the funds could not be given directly to the UN, the UN Foundation had to be created to receive the donation

Among the many insights the book provides into some dark historical corridors is the way UNA-USA led the way to ease tensions between the US and the Soviet Union. The idea begun in the late 1960s was to host a "Parallel Studies Program" in which experts would discuss key topics such as nuclear nonproliferation. Other innovations followed, including scholarly symposia and the United Nations Year of "Dialogue Among Civilizations" that took advantage of the Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Khatami a multilateral initiative aimed at better understanding on a number of important issues including terrorism and international security in a post 9/11 world. The effort required a significant amount of UNA-USA participation and opened up some intriguing possibilities that UNA-USA might want to attempt in the future. The turn of the century saw UNA-USA support a range of creative ideas to support key UN humanitarian issues that resonated with their members, a notable success in this area was the movement to clear and ban landmines. Landmine kits were distributed to 177 chapters and divisions.

In the later chapters that address thematic elements, including "Leadership Challenges across the Decades," important but more in house issues are addressed such as the perennial issue of fundraising, the sometimes vexed relationship of the national office to the local chapters, and the negotiations that led to the creation of the alliance between the UN Foundation and UNA-USA. Other chapters focus on UNA-USA's education outreach, which started earlier than most people might have thought. The first annual school essay competition began in 1945 when 1,400 public high schools enrolled in the contest and developed rapidly but then was phased out after reaching its nadir in the 1980s with the award of cash prizes. Only the UNA Global Classroom program has managed to withstand the test of time and has remained the core activity of some UNA chapters as Model UN programs. A last chapter in the history book provides more detailed information on the alliance between the UN Foundation and the UNA-USA and suggests that time will work its magic and the alliance will more effectively represent the views of UNA-USA members. In that same chapter are useful reflections on the generational shift in membership that currently confronts the organization. As Chris Whately, the executive director of UNA-USA, reports a concerted effort to increase youth membership has worked, with 60 percent of its current 14,000 members younger than 25. The chapter ends on a hopeful note--that the organization's consistent vision from the beginning, "the promotion of internationalism in the United States, with the United Nations as a primary vehicle for the country's foreign relations" has been a success. The UNA has been blessedly free from controversies effectively straddling the line between supporting the UN and supporting a more traditional, bilaterally oriented foreign policy. It continues to reach out to schools and colleges and has become more diverse reflecting the nation's changing demographics. The organization now more strategically picks its targets concerning where it wants to focus its considerable energies--as the idea of the UN as a single global institution that can save mankind from extinction no longer excites people as much as viewing the UN's work in terms of single issues such as the fight against climate change.

At the close of reading this volume that runs to 336 densely written pages, one is left with a feeling of gratitude to a wide variety of Americans who volunteered to become part of this organization that is still going strong 70 years after its founding. Those teaching the UN or international diplomacy would do well to put this volume on their own and their students' reading list because it presents a much fuller picture of the way an institution as large as the UN has depended on ordinary men and women for its survival and growth. It shows the way three generations since the organization's founding have responded to the particular American challenge of ensuring the UN survives for another 70 years and can effectively fulfill its mission to end the scourge of war.



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